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APA Referencing - Education & Counselling students: Audiovisual media

This guide provides information on how to reference using the APA 6th edition referencing style. PLEASE NOTE: Theology students should use Chicago Footnote Style

How to reference audiovisual media

Audiovisual material (DVD)

In-text reference

According to Montgomery (2000)...

OR it had been identified (Montgomery, 2000).

Reference list

Surname, Initial. (Producer). (Year). Title of DVD [DVD]. Country of origin: Studio

Montgomery, M. (Producer). (2000). The story of Paul the apostle [DVD]. USA: A & E Television Networks. 

Audiovisual material (Episode in a TV show)

In-text reference

According to Hadley and Dowthwaite (2008)...

OR it had been identified (Hadley & Dowthwaite, 2008).

Reference list

Surname, Initial. (Writer), & Surname, Initial. (Director). (Year). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In Initial. Surname (Executive Producer), Title of TV series. Location: Studio.

Hadley, M. (Writer), & Dowthwaite, A. (Director). (2008). Archaeologists and artefacts [Television series episode]. In M. Hadley (Producer), The Christ files. Sydney, NSW: Anglican Media. 

Audiovisual material (YouTube video)

In-text reference

According to AITSL (2012) ...


... as it had been identified (AITSL, 2012).

Reference list

NB: Use the screen name of the person who posted the video on YouTube as the author. Copy the name exactly as it appears on YouTube, including lowercase letters and spelling mistakes. 

Screen name/Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from url

AITSL. (2012, May 7). 21st Century Education [Video file]. Retrieved from

Audiovisual material (Podcast)

In-text reference

According to Parker (2015)...

OR it had been identified (Parker, 2015).

Reference list

APA recommends that with podcasts you “cite what you see” i.e. some podcasts may have information about who is the presenter, producer, writer etc. whereas others may only list the presenter or only the producer of the podcast. Include as much information as you have from the website or app where you downloaded the podcast but do not feel you need to search for additional information to complete the citation.

Surname, Initial. (Presenter), & Surname, Initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from url of website

Parker, C. (Presenter). (2015, July 17). Digital discernment: The story of technology and how it shapes us [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from  

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