Cash (2011) identified ten elements in a differentiated classroom.
There are ten elements in a differentiated classroom (Cash, 2011).
Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of the book: Subtitle of the book. City of publication, State or Country of publication: Publisher.
Cash, R. (2011). Advancing differentiation: Thinking and learning for the 21st century. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing.
Barker and Powell (2014) explained that when someone comes to a counselling session they will have considered what they want to talk about.
When a person comes to a counselling session they will have considered what they want to talk about (Barker & Powell, 2014).
Surname, Initial., & Surname, Initial. (Year). Title of the book: Subtitle of the book. City of publication, State or Country of publication: Publisher.
Barker, G., & Powell, C. (2014). From woe to go: A training text for Christian counsellors. Bloomington, IN: Balboa Press.
First citation: Morgan, Comber, Freebody and Nixon (2014) encouraged teachers to use data from the students' writing to help plan future lessons.
Subsequent citations: Morgan et al. (2014) discovered at many schools students had individual laptops and accessed and submitted information via the school intranet.
First citation: Teachers should be encouraged to use data from the students' writing to help plan future lessons (Morgan, Comber, Freebody, & Nixon, 2014).
Subsequent citations: At some schools students may have individual laptops and access and submit information via the school intranet (Morgan et al., 2014).
Surname, Initial., Surname, Initial., Surname, Initial., & Surname, Initial (Year). Title of the book: Subtitle of the book. City of publication, State or Country of publication: Publisher.
Morgan, A., Comber, B., Freebody, P., & Nixon, H. (2014). Literacy in the middle years: Learning from collaborative classroom research. Newtown, NSW: Primary English Teaching Association.
NB: Cite the surname of the first author and then write et al. for in-text references
Kramer et al. (2011) discussed the positive impact collaborative teaching can have on student achievement.
Collaborative teaching has been shown to have a positive impact on student achievement (Kramer et al., 2011).
NB: Write the names of all the authors in the reference list
Title of the book: Subtitle of the book.
Kramer, S., Lewis, J., Hogan, F., Waters, G., Watson, B., Jones, M., & Smith, M. (2011). Collaborative teaching in the Middle School. Boston, MA: Stellar Books.
Louden et al. (2000) concluded that difficulties with numeracy were less than difficulties with literacy for primary school students.
The report concluded that difficulties with numeracy were less than difficulties with literacy for primary school students (Louden et al., 2000).
NB: When there are more than eight authors include the first six authors' names, then insert an ellipsis and then the final author's name.
Title of the book: Subtitle of the book.
Louden, W., Chan, L. K., Elkins, J., Greaves, D., House, H., Milton, M.,...Van Kraayenoord, C. (2000). Mapping the territory: Primary students with learning difficulties: Literacy and numeracy. Canberra, Australia: Department Education, Training and Youth Affairs.
According to Young (2007), there is frequently distrust in the relationship between school and the parents of school students.
The relationship between schools and the parents of students is often fraught with issues (Young, 2007, p. 300).
Young, B. (2007). The collaborative school community. In J. L. Drexler (Ed.), Schools as communities (pp. 299-316). Colorado Springs, CO: Purposeful Design.
In an edited book, the editor(s) may or may not have written a chapter within the book. If referencing or quoting from a chapter, cite the chapter (see Chapter in an edited book tab). If citing the entire book (rare), the in-text citation will be similar to a citation for an authored book.
The compilation of research on memory in autism by Boucher and Bowler (2010) remains an influential publication in this area.
In an influential publication on memory in autism (Boucher & Bowler, 2010) ...
Boucher, J., & Bowler, D. (Eds.). (2010). Memory in autism: theory and evidence. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.
According to the Board of Studies NSW (2003) Commerce should provide students with knowledge that helps them make wise decisions about consumer, financial, business, legal and employment issues.
Studying Commerce provides students with knowledge that helps them make wise decisions about consumer, financial, business, legal and employment issues (Board of Studies NSW, 2003).
NB: If the corporate author is also the publisher you write "Author" after the place of publication
Board of Studies NSW. (2003). Commerce Years 7-10 syllabus. North Sydney, NSW: Author.
Marsh and Hart (2011) discuss how for students technology is a part of their natural landscape.
For students today technology is a part of their natural landscape (Marsh & Hart, 2011).
NB: An edition number is not required for a first edition
Marsh, C., & Hart, C. (2011). Teaching the social sciences and humanities in an Australian curriculum (6th ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW: Pearson Australia.
Sometimes you may want to use a reference that refers to another source that you don't have access to directly. Here is an example in a block quote.
The writer who included this block quote in her assignment had access to the Schueffgen (2000) reference but not the translation by Frith (1991), or the original 1944 work by Hans Asperger. The Frith reference was unavailable and the Asperger (1944) reference was in German. Note that the original work by Asperger is listed first, the translation is listed second, then 'cited in' precedes the reference that the writer actually consulted. The page number of the Scheuffgen reference is given last. The Scheuffgen reference had already been cited earlier in the assignment, so et al. was used instead of listing multiple authors.
For Endnote users: The Scheuffgen (2000) reference was inserted as an in-text reference and, in the Word document, the reference was edited (by right-clicking the in-text reference) to add the other two references as a prefix, including the words 'cited in'.
In the Reference list, the citation appeared as:
Scheuffgen, K., Happé, F., Anderson, M. & Frith, U. (2000). High 'intelligence', low 'IQ'? Speed of processing and measured IQ in children with autism. Development and Psychopathology, 12(01), 83-90.
(author, publication year of translation)
Author surname, Initial. (publication year of translation). Title (Translator initials, surname, Trans.). Place of publication: Publisher.
Lohfink, G. (1999). Does God need the church? Toward a theology of the people of God (L. M. Maloney, Trans.). Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press.
Citation of the original work is not needed:
Lohfink, G. (1998). Braucht Gott die Kirche? zur Theologie des Volkes Gottes: Freiburg im Breisgau, Urfeld-Verl.