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APA Referencing - Education & Counselling students: Interviews/Research data

This guide provides information on how to reference using the APA 6th edition referencing style. PLEASE NOTE: Theology students should use Chicago Footnote Style

How to reference interviews/research data

Interviews and research data

APA Style Rules state that all sources should be cited so that they can be retrieved. However, there is an exception made to sources obtained through original research i.e. interviews, survey etc. as there is a need for confidentiality and protecting the identity of the participant.

Any research data discussed in an assignment should not in any way identify the participants however you can refer to participants by identifiers other than their names, such as:

  • their roles (e.g., participant, teacher, counsellor, student, patient),
  • pseudonyms or nicknames,
  • initials,
  • descriptive phrases,
  • case numbers, or
  • letters of the alphabet

Examples of how to discuss research participant data

Here are a few examples of how participant data might be presented in the text. The most appropriate presentation will depend on context.

  • One respondent stated she had employed various classroom management techniques in order to manage her class.
  • “Madge,” a 45-year-old teacher, used various classroom management strategies. “I think there is such importance for a positive classroom environment,” she said.
  • MJ, an Australian teacher, said that is very important there is “a positive classroom environment.”
  • Case 24 commented on the need for a positive classroom environment.
  • Participant M said she varies her classroom management strategies in order to have a positive classroom environment.
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