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Chicago Footnote Referencing - Theology students: Bible

This guide provides information on how to reference using the Chicago Footnote referencing style. PLEASE NOTE: counselling and education students should use APA referencing style.

How to reference the Bible

The Bible is referenced differently to other books you use in your assignments. According to the Chicago Manual of Style 17th edition the Bible or classical sources should not be included in your bibliography.

There are also some special requirements for referencing the Bible at Morling College which should be followed:

  • References to the Bible should be included as an in-text reference and not in a footnote e.g:

We are encouraged in the Bible to not be anxious about anything but to bring everything before God in prayer (Phil 4:6-7).


  • An abbreviated form of the the book of the Bible can be used. Accepted abbreviations are listed below.


  • You do not need to state the Bible translation you have used if it is the NIV 2011 or NRSV.


  • If it is different Bible translation e.g.NLT or CEV then you must state in the in-text reference which translation you have used. This includes Today's New International Version (TNIV)

e.g: In Acts 11 Peter justifies his actions to the circumcised believers who praise God for including the Gentiles stating “God has now let the Gentiles turn to him, and he has given life to them" (Acts 11:18, CEV).

Abbreviations for books of the Bible

Old Testament

Genesis: Gen

Exodus: Exod

Leviticus: Lev

Numbers: Num

Deuteronomy: Deut

Joshua: Josh

Judges: Judg

Ruth: Ruth

1-2 Samuel: 1-2 Sam

1-2 Kings: 1-2 Kgs

1-2 Chronicles: 1-2 Chr

Ezra: Ezra

Nehemiah: Neh

Esther: Esth

Job: Job

Psalms: Ps :pl Pss

Proverbs: Prov

Ecclesiastes: Eccl

Song of Solomon: Song of Songs/ Cant

Isaiah: Isa

Jeremiah: Jer

Lamentations: Lam

Ezekiel: Ezek

Daniel: Dan

Hosea: Hos

Joel: Joel

Amos: Amos

Obadiah: Obad

Jonah: Jonah

Micah: Mic

Nahum: Nah

Habakkuk: Hab

Zephaniah: Zeph

Haggai: Hag

Zechariah :Zech

Malachi: Mal


New Testament

Matthew: Matt

Mark: Mark

Luke: Luke

John: John

Acts: Acts

Romans: Rom

1-2 Corinthians: 1-2 Cor

Galatians: Gal

Ephesians: Eph

Philippians: Phil

Colossians: Col

1-2 Thessalonians: 1-2 Thess

1-2 Timothy: 1-2 Tim

Titus: Titus

Philemon: Phlm

Hebrews: Heb

James: Jas

1-2 Peter: 1-2 Pet

1-2-3 John: 123 John

Jude: Jude

Revelation: Rev


© 2016 Morling College. Morling College is an affiliated institution with the Australian College of Theology (CRICOS Provider 02650E). Morling College Counselling (CRICOS Provider 03265F).