The APA style is an author-date style used for citing and referencing information in assignments and publications. In addition to the information provided in this guide on how to reference particular sources there are some overall style rules you need to follow, which are detailed below.
When using direct quotes in your assignment include page numbers. If the quote is under 40 words, place double quotation marks around the quote:
If the quote is 40 words or longer, start the quote indented on a new line, without double quotation marks. Place the in-text citation after the quote including page numbers.
If the there are no page numbers, such as on a website, replace page numbers with paragraph numbers, using the abbreviation para.
You may want to cite an author who is cited within the text you are reading e.g. if Kemmis quotes Young in his journal article and you want to refer to the idea from Young. If possible find the original source i.e. the book that Young wrote and use that as your reference. If this is not possible, because it is out of print, you are unable to locate it or it is only available in another language, then put the source you read in your reference list and refer to the cited author in your in-text reference.
There can be times in your research when you have read the same idea from different authors in different sources. When including multiple authors in an in-text reference you need to order them alphabetically according to the first author's surname and separating each citation with a semi-colon.
The importance of professional learning for a teacher's ongoing career development cannot be underestimated (Cash, 2011; Drufess, 2010; Stevens & Lake, 2015; Young, 1998).
The reference list is located at the end of your assignment and should include all the details of every source you have referred to in your assignment. NB: APA Style does not use bibliographies (all sources you read) but a reference list (only sources you refer to in your assignment)
Reference lists should be organised alphabetically, according to authors' names, and then chronologically if there is the same author for two or more references e.g.
Note that the title of the book or journal article should be italicised and hanging lines should be indented (i.e. if the reference goes onto a second line).
There are acceptable abbreviations in the reference list for parts of the books:
|Abbreviation||Book or publication part|
|Rev. ed.||Revised edition|
|2nd ed.||Second edition|
|Ed. (Eds.)||Editor (Editors)|
|et al.||and others|
|p. (pp.)||page (pages)|
|Vol.||Volume (not used for journals)|