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APA Referencing - Education & Counselling students: Quotes & citations

This guide provides information on how to reference using the APA 6th and 7th edition publication style

Quotes and Citations

The APA style is an author-date style used for citing and referencing information in assignments and publications. In addition to the specific information provided on the tabs above on how to reference particular sources there are some overall style rules you need to follow, which are detailed below. APA 6th edition examples are in the left column, APA 7th edition in the right.

And or & Location of in-text references Multiple works in one in-text reference
Citations within quotations Multiple authors Quotations
Citing an author cited within the reference Multiple works by the same author with the same publication date When to cite

APA 6th edition advice is in the left column, APA 7th edition in the right. (In some cases, there is no change between APA6 and APA7.)

APA6

APA 6th Edition

Quotations (APA6)

When using direct quotations in your assignment, include page numbers. If the quote is under 40 words, place double quotation marks around the words, preserve the sentence grammar and punctuation, and include the in-text citation within the sentence punctuation.

Example:

It is true that “learning how to teach is as complex as teaching itself” (Marsh, Clarke, & Pittaway, 2014, p. 11).

If the quotation is 40 words or longer, start the quote indented on a new line, without double quotation marks. Place the in-text citation, including page numbers, after the end of the quotation and after the end of the sentence punctuation.

Example:

Students explained that they read dystopian novels because the novels helped them to see what is necessary to create a better, fairer world. One student stated that:

Authors take a wrongness in the world and exaggerate it and show what could happen if things continued in that way – and it would be a disservice to the author if you don’t try to understand that problem and where it came from and what you could do about it. (Wilhelm, 2015, p. 18)

If the author name has been used in the text of the sentence, the year appears immediately after the author name and the page number appears separately after the quotation ends.

Example:

Harris (2013) stated that "We should aspire to be leaders who add value to the lives of others" (p. 118).

If there are no page numbers, such as on a website, replace page numbers with paragraph numbers, using the abbreviation 'para.' 

Example:

"Be sure to address an issue between you and a student or between two students as quickly as possible" (Alber, 2012, para. 11).

Multiple authors (APA6 )

When there are multiple authors for one work, the number of authors determines the way that the work is cited in text.

When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in text. When a work has three, four, or five authors, cite all authors the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (not italicized and with a period after al). (p. 175)

Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found ... [Use as first citation in text.]

Kisangau et al. (2007) found [Use as subsequent ... citation]

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

 

Multiple works in one in-text reference (APA6)

There can be times in your research when you have read the same idea from different authors in different sources. When including multiple works in an in-text reference, order them alphabetically according to the first author's surname and separating each citation with a semi-colon.

Example:

The importance of professional learning for a teacher's ongoing career development cannot be underestimated (Cash, 2011; Drufess, 2010; Stevens & Lake, 2015).

Location of in-text references (APA6)

Put the in-text citation immediately after the author's surname when writing the author's name in the sentence.

Example:

Punch (1998) argued that such case studies produce generalisable findings if the case is used to conceptualise or develop propositions...

When not using the author's name in the sentence put the in-text citation at the end of the sentence.

Example:

Claims of credibility and fittingness for this study are based on the following criteria: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, triangulation, and member checking (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).

For quotations within the sentence structure, put the in-text citation with the page number immediately after the end of the quote.

Example:

Eidetic memory is defined as "a rare form of visual memory ... distinguished from ordinary visual imagery by its vividness and by the fact that it is 'seen' projected in front of the viewer as opposed to being merely remembered" (Furst, Gardner & Kamiya, 1974, p. 603).

Where the author name and citation has been used earlier in the sentence, use the page number only as the citation after the quote.

Example:

Punch (1998) argued that such case studies can produce generalisable findings if the case is used to conceptualise or develop propositions that can be "assessed for their applicability and transferability to other situations" (p. 154).

When to cite (APA6)

The advice given in the APA Publication Manual on when to cite includes the following:

Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. They may provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work. (p. 169)

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Citations within quotations (APA6)

According to the APA Publication Manual (2010):

Do not omit citations embedded within the original material you are quoting. The works cited need not be included in the list of references (unless you happen to cite them as primary sources elsewhere in your paper). (p. 173)

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

 

Citing an author cited within the reference (APA6)

You may want to cite an author who is cited within the text you are reading, e.g. if Kemmis quotes Young in his journal article and you want to refer to the idea from Young. If possible find the original source, i.e. the book that Young wrote, and use that as your reference. If this is not possible, then put the source you read in your reference list and refer to the cited author in your in-text reference.

Example:

In text
Young's model (as cited in Kemmis, 2014) emphasised the power relationships in action research.

Reference List
Kemmis, S. (2014). Action research. London, England: Springer.

Example:

In text

Kanner, the researcher who originally described classic autism, used the term "fragmentary processing" (Kanner, 1943, cited in Happe, 1994, p. 127).

Reference List 
Happe, F. (1994). 
Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. Hove, East Sussex: Psychological Press.

Multiple works by the same author(s) with the same publication date (APA6)

References by the same author(s) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding or The). Place lowercase letters--a, b, c, and so forth--immediately after the year, within the parentheses. 

Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control ...
Baheti, J. R. (2001b).  Roles of ...

Once you know the order of the reference list (by title) use the publication year with the lower-case letter for in-text citations, e.g. (Baheti, 2001b).

(American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 182-183)

APA7

APA 7th Edition

Quotations (APA7)

When using direct quotations in your assignment, include page numbers. If the quote is under 40 words, place double quotation marks around the words, preserve the sentence grammar and punctuation, and include the in-text citation within the sentence punctuation.

Example:

It is true that “learning how to teach is as complex as teaching itself” (Marsh, Clarke, & Pittaway, 2014, p. 11).

If the quotation is 40 words or longer, start the quote indented on a new line, without double quotation marks. Place the in-text citation, including page numbers, after the end of the quotation and after the end of the sentence punctuation.

Example:

Students explained that they read dystopian novels because the novels helped them to see what is necessary to create a better, fairer world. One student stated that:

Authors take a wrongness in the world and exaggerate it and show what could happen if things continued in that way – and it would be a disservice to the author if you don’t try to understand that problem and where it came from and what you could do about it. (Wilhelm, 2015, p. 18)

If the author name has been used in the text of the sentence, the year appears immediately after the author name and the page number appears separately after the quotation ends.

Example:

Harris (2013) stated that "We should aspire to be leaders who add value to the lives of others" (p. 118).

If there are no page numbers, such as on a website, replace page numbers with paragraph numbers, using the abbreviation 'para.' 

Example:

"Be sure to address an issue between you and a student or between two students as quickly as possible" (Alber, 2012, para. 11).

Multiple authors (APA7)

When there are multiple authors for one work, the number of authors determines the way that the work is cited in text.

For a work with one or two authors, include the author name(s) in every citation. (p. 266)

Wolfe and Nevills (2008) found that ...

 

For a work with three or more authors, include the name of only the first author plus "et al." in every citation, including the first citation. (p. 266)

Kisangau et al. (2007) found ... [Use for all in-text citations, including the first citation.]

APA. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association (APA). 

Multiple works in one in-text reference (APA7)

There can be times in your research when you have read the same idea from different authors in different sources. When including multiple works in an in-text reference, order them alphabetically according to the first author's surname and separating each citation with a semi-colon.

Example:

The importance of professional learning for a teacher's ongoing career development cannot be underestimated (Cash, 2011; Drufess, 2010; Stevens & Lake, 2015).

Location of in-text references (APA7)

Put the in-text citation immediately after the author's surname when writing the author's name in the sentence.

Example:

Punch (1998) argued that such case studies produce generalisable findings if the case is used to conceptualise or develop propositions ...

When not using the author's name in the sentence put the citation at the end of the sentence.

Example:

Claims of credibility and fittingness for this study are based on the following criteria: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, triangulation, and member checking (Lincoln & Guba, 1985).

For quotations within the sentence structure, put the in-text citation with the page number immediately after the end of the quote.

Example:

Eidetic memory is defined as "a rare form of visual memory ... distinguished from ordinary visual imagery by its vividness and by the fact that it is 'seen' projected in front of the viewer as opposed to being merely remembered" (Furst, Gardner & Kamiya, 1974, p. 603).

Where the author name and citation has been used earlier in the sentence, use the page number only as the citation after the quote.

Example:

Punch (1998) argued that such case studies can produce generalisable findings if the case is used to conceptualise or develop propositions that can be "assessed for their applicability and transferability to other situations" (p. 154).

When to cite (APA7)

The advice given in the APA Publication Manual on when to cite includes the following:

Cite the work of those individuals whose ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. The works you cite provide key background information, support or dispute your thesis, or offer critical definitions and data.  Cite only works that you hae read and ideas that you have incorporated into your writing. (p. 253)

APA. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association (APA). 

Citations within quotations (APA7)

According to the APA Publication Manual (2020):

When quoting material that contains embedded citations, include the citations within the quotation. Do not include these works in the reference list unless you cite them as primary sources elsewhere in your paper. (p. 276)

APA. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association (APA). 

Citing an author cited within the reference (APA7)

You may want to cite an author who is cited within the work you are reading, e.g. if Kemmis quotes Young in his journal article and you want to refer to the idea from Young. If possible find the original source, i.e. the book that Young wrote, and use that as your reference. If this is not possible, then put the source you read in your reference list and refer to the cited author in your in-text reference.

Example:

In text
Young's model (as cited in Kemmis, 2014) emphasised the power relationships in action research.

Reference List
Kemmis, S. (2014). Action research. Springer.

Example:

In text

Kanner, the researcher who originally described classic autism, used the term "fragmentary processing" (Kanner, 1943, cited in Happe, 1994, p. 127).

Reference List 
Happe, F. (1994). 
Autism: An introduction to psychological theory. Psychological Press.

Multiple works by the same author(s) with the same publication date

References by the same author(s) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding or The). Place lowercase letters--a, b, c, and so forth--immediately after the year, within the parentheses. 

Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control ...
Baheti, J. R. (2001b).  Roles of ...

Once you know the order of the reference list (by title) use the publication year with the lower-case letter for in-text citations, e.g. (Baheti, 2001b).

(American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 303-306)

And or &

And or &

For both 6th and 7th publication style between the final two authors, and is used within the narrative, while an ampersand–&–is used inside parentheses.

Use and within the sentence.

Wolfe and Nevills (2008) found that ...

 

Use an ampersand in the parentheses.

It has been found that ... (Wolfe & Nevills, 2008).
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