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APA Referencing - Education & Counselling students: Referencing questions

This guide provides information on how to reference using the APA 6th and 7th edition publication style

APA6

APA 6th Edition

Multiple works with the same author and publication date (APA6)

References by the same author with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding or The). Place lowercase letters--a, b, c, and so forth--immediately after the year, within the parentheses.

Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control ...
Baheti, J. R. (2001b).  Roles of ...

See also the references to Cooling's work in the Sample Reference List.

Once you know the order of the reference list (by title), use the publication year with the lower-case letter for in-text citations, e.g. (Cooling, 2017a; 2017b).

(American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 182-183)

Italics (APA6)

When should I use italics?

The APA 6th Edition style manual states: "In general, use italics infrequently" (p. 104).

Use italics for:

  • titles of books, periodicals, films
  • introduction of a new, technical, or key term or label (after the first use, do not italicise)
  • letter, words or phrases given as a linguistic example

Do not use italics for:

  • commonly used (in English) foreign language phrases
  • abbreviations
  • emphasis, unless the emphasis might be misread

(pp. 104-106)

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Dissertations

Can I reference a dissertation/thesis?

Dissertation is a North American term for the long research papers written by students undertaking post-graduate degrees at university. In Australia the term thesis is commonly used instead of dissertation.

The principle is to use scholarly, peer-reviewed published journal articles, and books written later than the journal articles by those published researchers. If you have searched EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and the Recommended Readings for the unit for sources, and wish to reference a thesis, that is appropriate as long as the balance of sources are peer-reviewed journal articles and authoritative books. 

 

APA7

APA 7th Edition

Multiple works with the same author and publication date (APA7)

References by the same author(s) with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding or The). Place lowercase letters--a, b, c, and so forth--immediately after the year, within the parentheses. 

Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control ...
Baheti, J. R. (2001b).  Roles of ...

See also the references to Cooling's work in the Sample Reference List .

Once you know the order of the reference list (by title), use the publication year with the lower-case letter for in-text citations, e.g. (Cooling, 2017a; 2017b).

(American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 303-306)

Italics (APA7)

When should I use italics?

Use italics for:

  • titles of books, periodicals, films
  • introduction of a new, technical, or key term or label (after the first use, do not italicise)
  • letters, words or phrases given as a linguistic example

Do not use italics for:

  • commonly used (in English) foreign language phrases
  • abbreviations
  • emphasis, unless the emphasis might be misread

(pp. 170-172)

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.).

Dissertations

Can I reference a dissertation/thesis?

Dissertation is a North American term for the long research papers written by students undertaking post-graduate degrees at university. In Australia the term thesis is commonly used instead of dissertation.

The principle is to use scholarly, peer-reviewed published journal articles, and books written later than the journal articles by those published researchers. If you have searched EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, and the Recommended Readings for the unit for sources, and wish to reference a thesis, that is appropriate as long as the balance of sources are peer-reviewed journal articles and authoritative books. 

 

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