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APA Referencing - Education & Counselling students: Reference lists

This guide provides information on how to reference using the APA 6th and 7th edition publication style

Reference lists

APA6 APA7
Abbreviations Abbreviations
Hanging Indents Hanging Indents
No author, group author No author, group author
Order
Order
References by the same author(s) with the same publication date References by the same author(s) with the same publication date
Reference Lists Reference Lists
Sample Reference List Sample Reference List
Spacing Spacing

Two major differences between 6th and 7th edition reference lists are that in 7th edition:

  1. the location of the publisher is omitted
  2. if the group author (e.g. American Psychological Association) is also the publisher, the publisher is omitted, whereas in APA 6th edition, the word Author was written in place of the publisher.

These two changes result in most references being shorter in the 7th edition referencing style.

Abbreviations (APA6)

Abbreviations

There are acceptable abbreviations in the reference list for parts of the books:

Abbreviation Book or publication part
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. Second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
et al. and others
n.d. No date
No. number (series)
p. (pp.) page (pages)
para. paragraph
Pt. part
Vol. Volume (not used for journals)

Hanging Indents (APA6)

Hanging Indents

Hanging indents are used to align the first author's surname with the margin and wrap the second and subsequent lines of the reference using an indent. The instructions for hanging indents in MS Word are:

  1. Select the text of the reference list
  2. Select Paragraph Settings
  3. Select the drop-down list under Special
  4. Choose Hanging
  5. Type a measurement, e.g. 1.27 cm. This is the size of the indentation of the second and subsequent lines from the margin.
  6. Click OK

No author, group author (APA6)

No author, group author

If an organisation or group is given as the author, i.e. there are no individual author names given, write the organisation's name in full as the author, e.g. National Health and Medical Research Council. 

You may use an abbreviation within the text after you have provided the name in full the first time it appears, e.g. NHMRC. Do not use the abbreviation in the reference list.

Write Author as the publisher if the organisation is also the publisher.

For Endnote users, type a comma at the end of the organisation's name in the author field to stop Endnote abbreviating the organisation's name as though it is an individual's name.

If there is no author or the author is not known, use the title in the place of the author and alphabetise by the first significant word. The word Anonymous is only used for works that have "Anonymous" as the author.

Example:

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2018). Australian code for responsible conduct of research. Canberra, ACT: Author.

 

(American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 183)

Order (APA6)

Order

Several works by different authors with the same surname are ordered by first initial.

Mathur, A. L., & Wallston, J. (1999)
Mathur, S. E., & Ahlers, R. J. (1998)


References by the same author with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding or The). Place lowercase letters--a, b, c, and so forth--immediately after the year, within the parentheses.

Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control ...
Baheti, J. R. (2001b).  Roles of ...


See also the references to Cooling's work in the Sample Reference List below.

(American Psychological Association, 2010, p. 182-183)

Reference Lists (APA6)

Reference Lists

The reference list is located at the end of your assignment. It starts on a new page and includes the details of every source you have referred to in your assignment. APA Style does not use bibliographies (all the sources you read) but a reference list only (sources you referred to in your assignment). 

Reference lists should be organised alphabetically according to authors' names and then chronologically if there is the same author for two or more references.

Example:

Ames, M. (2013). Engaging "apolitical" adolescents: analyzing the popularity and educational potential of dystopian literature post-9/11. High School Journal, 97(1), 3-20.

Arnold, M., & Kunzel, B. (2007). Speculative fiction: classroom must-reads. English Journal, 97(1), 118-122.

Blakemore, S.-J., & Frith, U. (2005). The learning brain: Lessons for education. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Blakemore, S.-J., & Frith, U. (2008). The literate brain. In K. W. Fischer & M. H. Immordino-Yang (Eds.), The Jossey-Bass reader on the brain and learning (pp. 229-241). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


The title of the book or journal article should be italicised and hanging indents should be used (not shown in this example). See the Sample Reference List on this page for correct format of hanging indents.

Sample Reference List (APA6)

Sample Reference List in APA 6th Edition

Formatted in MS Wordundefined

Spacing (APA6)

Spacing

The reference list uses the same line spacing as the body of your assignment (1.5 or double-spaced). A blank line between entries in the reference list is optional.

Abbreviations (APA7)

Abbreviations

There are acceptable abbreviations in the reference list for parts of the books:

Abbreviation Book or publication part
ed. edition
Rev. ed. Revised edition
2nd ed. Second edition
Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
et al. and others
n.d. No date
No. number (series)
p. (pp.) page (pages)
para. paragraph
Pt. part
Vol. Volume (not used for journals)

Hanging Indents (APA7)

Hanging Indents

Hanging indents are used to align the first author's surname with the margin and wrap the second and subsequent lines of the reference using an indent. The instructions for hanging indents in MS Word are:

  1. Select the text of the reference list
  2. Select Paragraph Settings
  3. Select the drop-down list under Special
  4. Choose Hanging
  5. Type a measurement, e.g. 1.27 cm. This is the size of the indentation of the second and subsequent lines from the margin.
  6. Click OK

No author, group author (APA7)

No author, group author

If an organisation or group is given as the author, i.e. there are no individual author names, write the organisation's name in full as the author, e.g. National Health and Medical Research Council.

You may use an abbreviation within the text after you have provided the name in full the first time it appears, e.g. NHMRC. Do not use the abbreviation in the reference list.

If the group author is also the publisher, omit the publisher.

For Endnote users, type a comma at the end of the organisation's name in the author field to stop Endnote abbreviating the organisation's name as though it were an individual's name.

If there is no author or the author is not known, use the title in place of the author and alphabetise by the first significant word. The word Anonymous is only used for works that have "Anonymous" as the author.

Example:

National Health and Medical Research Council. (2018). Australian code for responsible conduct of research.

 

(American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 288)

Order (APA7)

Order

Several works by different authors with the same surname are ordered by first initial.

Mathur, A. L., & Wallston, J. (1999)
Mathur, S. E., & Ahlers, R. J. (1998)


References by the same author with the same publication date are arranged alphabetically by title (excluding or The). Place lowercase letters--a, b, c, and so forth--immediately after the year, within the parentheses.

Baheti, J. R. (2001a). Control ...
Baheti, J. R. (2001b).  Roles of ...


See also the references to Cooling's work in the Sample Reference List below.

(American Psychological Association, 2020, p. 303-306)

Reference Lists (APA7)

Reference Lists

The reference list is located at the end of your assignment. It starts on a new page and includes the details of every source you have referred to in your assignment. APA Style does not use bibliographies (all the sources you read) but a reference list only (sources you referred to in your assignment). 

Reference lists should be organised alphabetically according to authors' names and then chronologically if there is the same author for two or more references.

Example:

Ames, M. (2013). Engaging "apolitical" adolescents: analyzing the popularity and educational potential of dystopian literature post-9/11. High School Journal, 97(1), 3-20.

Arnold, M., & Kunzel, B. (2007). Speculative fiction: classroom must-reads. English Journal, 97(1), 118-122.

Blakemore, S.-J., & Frith, U. (2005). The learning brain: Lessons for education. Blackwell. 

Blakemore, S.-J., & Frith, U. (2008). The literate brain. In K. W. Fischer & M. H. Immordino-Yang (Eds.), The Jossey-Bass reader on the brain and learning (pp. 229-241). Jossey-Bass. 


The title of the book or journal article should be italicised and hanging indents should be used (not shown in this example). See the Sample Reference List on this page for correct format of hanging indents.

Sample Reference List (APA7)

Sample Reference List in APA 7th Edition

Formatted in MS Wordundefined

Spacing (APA7)

Spacing

The reference list uses the same line spacing as the body of your assignment (1.5 or double-spaced). A blank line between entries in the reference list is optional.

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