Skip to Main Content

APA Referencing - Education & CCSC students: Unpublished or informally published work

This guide provides information on how to reference using the APA 7th edition publication style

How to reference an unpublished or informally published work

Unpublished or informally published work

As with all referencing in academic writing, referencing is a matter of establishing the authority of the source or information you are relying upon as evidence to support the claims you make in your writing. This is the reason for peer review as it is a process that establishes the authority of a work through expert checking. Peer-reviewed published works are accepted as having greater authority than works that are not peer reviewed. Sometimes, however, the most useful research article might not be available as a peer-reviewed published article but it is available to us in an unpublished form. Use other peer-reviewed articles if possible but if there is a lack of published research reports and, for example, a pre-press version is available directly from the author, you may use it. Check whether the article has been published before submitting your final assignment or thesis and, if it has, reference the final version, taking into account any changes that the editors may have required in the peer-review process.

Unpublished and informally published works include:

  • work in progress
  • work submitted for publication
  • work prepared for publication but not submitted
  • work not formally published but available on...
    • a university website

    • an electronic archive such as or ResearchGate

    • the author's personal website

In-text citation

(Sloane, 2018)

Reference list

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript [or "manuscript submitted for publication," or "Manuscript in preparation"].

Sloane, A. (2018). The dissolving self: Dementia and identity in philosophical theology. Unpublished manuscript.


If the unpublished manuscript is from a university, give this information at the end.

Sloane, A. (2018). The dissolving self: Dementia and identity in philosophical theology. Unpublished manuscript. Bible and Theology Faculty, Morling College.


If you locate the work on an electronic archive, give this information at the end.

Krueger, J., & Colombetti, G. (2018). Affective affordances and psychopathology. Unpublished manuscript. Downloaded from, University of Exeter.


If a URL is available, give it at the end. 

Mitchell, S. D. (2000). The import of uncertainty. Retrieved from


If you use a pre-print version of an article that is later published, reference the published version.

© 2016 Morling College. Morling College is an affiliated institution with the Australian College of Theology (CRICOS Provider 02650E). Morling College Counselling (CRICOS Provider 03265F).