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APA Referencing - Education & CCSC students: Gray literature

This guide provides information on how to reference using the APA 7th edition publication style

Gray literature

Gray literature

The APA 7th edition publication manual provides guidance on how to reference documents that are in electronic form but are not from a published journal. This category is called Gray Literature. Gray literature includes electronic articles that are accessed on a web page (but are distinct from the web page) or which are downloaded as a PDF (portable document format). Examples are reports, press releases, codes of ethics and other government or agency documents. School documents, including curriculum documents, can be referenced in this category. 

Gray literature

APA7th Edition

Gray Literature

Gray literature (APA7)

Gray Literature

In-text reference

(Center on the Developing Child, 2017)


Center on the Developing Child (2017)


Reference list

Author, A. A. (1998). Title of work [Description]. Publisher. https://www.xxxxxx

This example references a PDF document downloaded from the CDC website.

Center on the Developing Child. (2017). Building the skills adults need for life: A guide for practitioners [PDF file]. Harvard University.
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