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APA Referencing - Education & CCSC students: Personal communication

This guide provides information on how to reference using the APA 7th edition publication style

How to reference personal communication

Personal Communication

Some references can be grouped under the heading of personal communication. These include private letters, memos, emails, online discussions, personal interviews, telephone conversations etc. that have occurred between yourself and another person. As these personal communications are private and often temporary they cannot be accessed by anyone else. Therefore they are not included in the reference list and are only cited in the text of your assignment.

In-text reference

Include the initials as well as the surname of the communicator.

According to D. Tennant (personal communication, April 18, 2012)…


…as it has been identified (D. Tennant, personal communication, April 18, 2012). 
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